Installa Ubuntu Server su un'unità flash, in modo permanente

18

Per prima cosa, volevo essere sicuro, c'è una comprensione di cosa NON tratta questo post:

Quello che sto cercando di fare è avere un server NAS (file) di casa che si avvia da una chiavetta USB o una scheda CF. È irrilevante per il punto di questo post come sia connessa la chiavetta USB (USB, IDE, in qualche altro modo), che cosa è rilevante: voglio avere un intero avvio del sistema operativo di avvio ed eseguire da flash drive. I motivi per cui voglio specificamente questo tipo di installazione sono: Voglio essere in grado di fare facilmente una copia di backup del sistema operativo (immagine del flash), voglio assicurarmi di poter scambiare il sistema operativo immediatamente e avviarlo (sostituendo l'unità flash ), e voglio che le unità su un file server siano sostituibili separatamente dal sistema operativo.

Sono consapevole che è possibile semplicemente formattare l'unità flash come ext2 e installarla su di essa. Quello che sto cercando sono raccomandazioni per creare una soluzione più robusta. Ecco alcuni articoli che sto cercando di fare:

  • configurare la partizione di root come YAFF2, o LogFS, o come un altro file system progettato specificamente per le unità flash.
  • riconfigurare il SO di base per minimizzare le scritture (ramfs in / tmp e simili)

Invia i tuoi consigli. Mi chiedo se Ubuntu sia applicabile anche a tale scenario ...

Voglio chiarire un po 'il mio obiettivo. Le normali unità SSD sono dotate di firmware che manterranno l'unità attiva per un lungo periodo utilizzando trucchi, come ad esempio: riallocazione costante delle scritture in nuovi settori. Le chiavette USB non hanno questo tipo di firmware, quindi l'utilizzo di un normale file system potrebbe ucciderli velocemente. Sto cercando se è possibile emulare il firmware SSD utilizzando il file system progettato per il flash. In un certo senso, sto cercando di farlo in modo che l'unità USB possa eseguire un sistema in modo normale, come se fosse un vero SSD.

    
posta galets 20.01.2012 - 18:27

3 risposte

1

Utilizza LVM . In questo caso puoi usare snapshot - cloni istantanei del tuo sistema, in modo da poter facilmente copiare l'intero sistema o semplicemente migrarlo tra le unità flash *.

E se ti piacerebbe avere una sorta di "livellamento dell'usura" , puoi usare aufs per il file system root su usb flash. Quindi non devi usare YAFF2 ecc., Ext4 andrà bene.

* Ma / boot avrai sempre bisogno di copiare manualmente + dovrai modificare Grub / UUID del disco . Avrai bisogno di un CD di salvataggio nel caso in cui ridimensiona il volume di root alla dimensione di USB Flash. E nel caso in cui interrompi grub leggi questo manuale .

Ho scritto il manuale per che.

    
risposta data BBK 29.02.2012 - 09:37
4

Se hai Ubuntu su HDD con LVM (Ubuntu Server utilizza LVM di default).

Questo script è stato testato su Ubuntu Oneiric 11.10 x86_64 3.0.0-16-server con le seguenti applicazioni:

LVM version:     2.02.66(2) (2010-05-20)
Library version: 1.02.48 (2010-05-20)
Driver version:  4.20.0
grub-install (GRUB) 1.99-12ubuntu5
aufs - advanced multi layered unification filesystem. version 2.1-standalone.tree-3.0-rcN-20110620

Step1. Shrink root FS alle dimensioni del tuo FlashDrive o più piccolo. Salta questo passaggio se la dimensione della radice di uguale o inferiore a FlashDrive.

Avvia con Resc CD per montare la partizione di root. Esegui i comandi successivi:

#make the kernel realize the LVM volumes are there
lvm vgchange -a y

#Before shrinking the file system, it is good practice to check it is all in order.
# Change /dev/ubuntu/root with your root lvm partition
e2fsck -f /dev/ubuntu/root

#After the check, resize2fs can be used to shrink the file system on the LVM volume
# Change /dev/ubuntu/root with your root lvm partition. Replace 6G with your FlashDrive capacity-500Mb
resize2fs -f -p /dev/ubuntu/root 6G
#The e2fsck check command could be run again to make sure the, now significantly smaller, root file system is OK.
# Change /dev/ubuntu/root with your root lvm partition. Replace 6G with your FlashDrive capacity-500Mb
resize2fs -f -p /dev/ubuntu/root 6G

#The lvreduce command reduces the size of LVM volumes.
# Change /dev/ubuntu/root with your root lvm partition. Replace 6G with your FlashDrive capacity-500Mb
lvm lvreduce -L6G /dev/ubuntu/root

#you resided root partition !
reboot

Passaggio 2. Preparazione di FlashDrive: per migrazione

dai un'occhiata al tuo vecchio UUID root

blkid  
#it will show something like:
#/dev/sda1: UUID="6b5085da-5b7c-4ca5-a907-1e527c87a478" TYPE="ext2"
#/dev/sda2: UUID="iZjCPX-AwGS-kEmg-zXPc-Z7ne-Xd3N-gXoPQd" TYPE="LVM2_member"

#We will need /dev/sda1's UUID later. Lets remember it (6b5085da-5b7c-4ca5-a907-1e527c87a478) for the future.

# Replace /dev/sdg with your FlashDrive. All data will be last!
fdisk /dev/sdg
make first partition (sdg1) about 500Mb as ext2/ext4
make second partition (sdg2) for example 6GB as LVM partition.

#replace ubuntu with the same LVM VolumeGroup for your root fs
#Extending VG with FlashDrive
vgextend ubuntu /dev/sdg2
modprobe dm-mirror
#Moving root partition to flash drive online :)
#Replace /dev/sdg2 with your Flash Drive's second partition
#Replace /dev/sda5 with your root drive
pvmove --verbose /dev/sda5 /dev/sdg2
#removing old root drive from VolumeGroup, so we can remove HDD from PC after manipulations. But not now.
vgreduce ubuntu /dev/sda5
#Creating boot partition.
#Replace /dev/sdg1 with your Flash Drive's first partition
mkfs -t ext4 -v /dev/sdg1
#Mounting first FlashDrive partition.
mkdir /mnt/boot
#Replace /dev/sdg1 with your Flash Drive's first partition
mount /dev/sdg1 /mnt/boot

#we will need some tools
apt-get install dump
#coping boot drive from HDD to FlashDrive first partition
#Replace /dev/sda1 (source) and /mnt/boot (destination) with your environments
(dump -0f - /dev/sda1) | ( cd /mnt/boot; restore -rf - )
#And let's not forget to restore boot sector (MBR):
# Replace /dev/sdg with FlashDrive disk path
grub-install /dev/sdg

#change UUID for /boot with the one we remember at the beginning of the Step 2 (6b5085da-5b7c-4ca5-a907-1e527c87a478).
vi /etc/fstab

#now we need to write changes to grub.
update-grub

#Now you can power off your PC.
poweroff
#Now you can replace old root FS's HDD.
#Do not forget configure your PC's BIOS to boot from your FlashDrive.

A) Se il tuo grub è stato caricato ma non è in grado di caricare il sistema operativo a prima canna questo articolo . prova il comando ls per capire cosa vede Grub.

grub>ls
# Replace (hd0,msdos1) regard to previous output
grub>ls (hd0,msdos1)

# Replace (hd0,msdos1)/grub regard to previous output
grub>ls (hd0,msdos1)/grub

grub>configfile (hd0,msdos1)/grub/grub.cfg

Dopo aver avviato con successo le modifiche non permanenti, devi aggiornare grub

update-grub

B) Se non vedi affatto grub, usa Rescue CD per avviare.

#and install grub
#Lets figure out new name of your FlashDrive
blkid
# Replace /dev/sda with new name of your FlashDrive which system shows you
grub-install /dev/sda
#Reboot without Rescue CD and go to point A)
reboot

Passaggio 3. AUFS per il file system root sull'unità flash USB.

apt-get update
 apt-get dist-upgrade
 apt-get install aufs-tools


# Aufs as root with apparmor. Enter dhclient3 to complain mode
# Network interface without it wount start/
apt-get install apparmor-utils
aa-complain dhclient3
# Or disable apparmor
#/etc/init.d/apparmor stop
#update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
#aptitude remove apparmor apparmor-utils

echo aufs >> /etc/initramfs-tools/modules

Ora crea il file / etc / initramfs-tools / scripts / init-bottom / __ rootaufs e posiziona il prossimo script:

#!/bin/sh
#  Copyright 2008 Nicholas A. Schembri State College PA USA
#
#  This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
#  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
#  the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
#  (at your option) any later version.
#
#  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
#  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
#  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
#  GNU General Public License for more details.
#
#    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
#    along with this program.  If not, see
#    <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

# https://help.ubuntu.com/community/aufsRootFileSystemOnUsbFlash#rootaufs_Script

# Thank you Voyage Linux for the idea, http://voyage.hk/ Great job on release 0.5
#
# Tested with 8.04.1
# tested with 9.10
# tested with debian live 6.0.1
#
# ****************************************************************************************
# 
#                                 Change log
#
# 2008.08.01  Added debugging comments in "drop to a shell" section. grub option aufs=tmpfs-debug will stop the init script.
#             reviewed *********** fix fstab on tmpfs ******************
#             rootaufs failed when system was booted with /dev/xxx and fstab had uuid= info.
#             BlaYO pointed out the best and simplest solution was to use grep -v. Grep replaces a sed one liner.
#             Add the comment block to fstab
#             
# 2009.12.07 Corrected issue caused by Apparmor.
#            Name changed to __rootaufs.
# 
# 2011.08.19 Changed if condition to avoid issue (sh: bad number) when $aufsdebug is not set.
#            Now checks exists apparmor before delete.
#
# 2011.08.20 For work correctly with Debian Live 6.0.1 (http://live.debian.net/) two lines must be removed from rc.local modification part:
#             'mount -f  /ro'
#             'echo aufs-tmpfs /rw tmpfs rw 0 0 >>/etc/mtab'
#





case $1 in
prereqs)
    exit 0
    ;;
esac

export aufs

for x in $(cat /proc/cmdline); do 
    case $x in 
    root=*)
        ROOTNAME=${x#root=}
        ;;
    aufs=*)
        aufs=${x#aufs=}
        case $aufs in
        tmpfs-debug)
            aufs=tmpfs
            aufsdebug=1
            ;;
        esac    
        ;;
    esac
done


if [ "$aufs" != "tmpfs" ]; then
    #not set in boot loader 
    #I'm not loved. good bye
    exit 0
fi




# This is a simple overview of the steps needed to use aufs on the root file system and see the /rw and /ro  branches.
# initramfs init-botton script 
# move the root file system to aufs/unionfs readonly /ro
# root is mounted on ${rootmnt}
# create tmpfs on /rw
# create a aufs using /ro and /rw
# put some files on the tmpfs to fix mtab and fstab 
# move aufs to rootmnt to finish the init process.
# No changes to the root file system are made by this script.
#
#  Why!
#  This will allow you to use a usb flash drive and control what is written to the drive.
#  no need to rebuild the squashfs file just to add a program. 
#  boot to single user mode.  The system works the way you expect. boot aufs=tmpfs and no changes are written to the flash.
#  run ubuntu on an eeePC .  

# Install 
# Install ubuntu 8.04 Hardy. Hardy has aufs installed by default
# apt-get update
# apt-get dist-upgrade
# apt-get install aufs-tools
# echo aufs >> /etc/initramfs-tools/modules
# put this file in /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom/rootaufs
# chmod 0755 rootaufs
# # clean up menu.lst 
# update-grub
# update-initramfs -u
# vi /boot/grub/menu.lst
# add aufs=tmpfs to the default entry. 
# do not add this line to single user mode.
# boot to single user mode in order to install software. 
# note: if your home account is on the root file system, your files are in ram and not saved.
# 


echo 
echo "       root-aufs:  Setting up aufs on ${rootmnt} as root file system "
echo 

modprobe -q --use-blacklist aufs
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:      Failed to load aufs.ko
    exit 0
fi

#make the mount points on the init root file system
mkdir /aufs
mkdir /rw
mkdir /ro

# mount the temp file system and move real root out of the way
mount -t tmpfs aufs-tmpfs /rw
mount --move ${rootmnt} /ro 
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:    ${rootmnt}  failed to move to /ro
    exit 0
fi


mount -t aufs -o dirs=/rw:/ro=ro aufs /aufs
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:      Failed to mount /aufs files system
    exit 0
fi


#test for mount points on aufs file system
[  -d /aufs/ro ] || mkdir /aufs/ro
[  -d /aufs/rw ] || mkdir /aufs/rw

# the real root file system is hidden on /ro of the init file system.  move it to /ro 
mount --move /ro /aufs/ro
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:      Failed to move /ro /aufs/ro 
    exit 0
fi

# tmpfs file system is hidden on /rw
mount --move /rw /aufs/rw
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:      Failed to move /rw /aufs/rw 
    exit 0
fi



#*********** fix fstab on tmpfs ******************
# test for /dev/sdx 
# this is not on the real file system.  This is created on the tmpfs each time the system boots.
# The init process will try to mount the root filesystem listed in fstab. / and swap must be removed.  
# the root file system must be mounted on /ro not on /

if [ "0$aufsdebug" -eq 1 ]; then
    echo  "   root-aufs debug:    Remove the root file system and swap from fstab "
    echo 
    echo 
    echo  "         ROOTNAME $ROOTNAME "
    echo  "         resume   $resume   "
    echo 
    echo  '     BlaYO pointed out that grep can be used to quickly remove '
    echo  '      the root file system from fstab. '
    echo 
    echo  '     Thank you BlaYO for the debug info.'
    echo

fi
# old code
# I'm sure that sed can do this in one step but I want to correct on the rootname  not matching the root in fstab.
#cat /aufs/ro/etc/fstab|sed -e s/$ROOTNAME/\#$ROOTNAME/ -e s/$resume/\#$resume/ >/aufs/etc/fstab  

#Add the comment block to fstab
cat <<EOF >/aufs/etc/fstab
#
#   RootAufs has mounted the root file system in ram
#
#  This fstab is in ram and the real fstab can be found /ro/etc/fstab
#  the root file system ' / ' has been removed.
#  All Swap files have been removed. 
#

EOF

#remove root and swap from fstab
cat /aufs/ro/etc/fstab|grep -v ' / ' | grep -v swap >>/aufs/etc/fstab  
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
    echo    root-aufs error:      Failed to create /aufs/etc/fstab 
    #exit 0
fi




# add the read only file system to fstab
#ROOTTYPE=$(/lib/udev/vol_id -t ${ROOT})
ROOTTYPE=$(cat /proc/mounts|grep ${ROOT}|cut -d' ' -f3)
ROOTOPTIONS=$(cat /proc/mounts|grep ${ROOT}|cut -d' ' -f4)
echo ${ROOT} /ro $ROOTTYPE $ROOTOPTIONS 0 0 >>/aufs/etc/fstab


# S22mount on debian systems is not mounting  /ro correctly after boot
# add to rc.local to correct what you see from df
#replace last case of exit with #exit
cat /aufs/ro/etc/rc.local|sed 's/\(.*\)exit/\#exit/' >/aufs/etc/rc.local  
echo mount -f  /ro >>/aufs/etc/rc.local 

# add back the root file system. mtab seems to be created by one of the init proceses. 
echo "echo aufs / aufs rw,xino=/rw/.aufs.xino,br:/rw=rw:/ro=ro 0 0 >>/etc/mtab" >>/aufs/etc/rc.local
echo "echo aufs-tmpfs /rw tmpfs rw 0 0 >>/etc/mtab" >>/aufs/etc/rc.local 
echo exit 0 >>/aufs/etc/rc.local 

#  Copyright 2008 Joaquin I. Bogado Garcia
#fix para apparmor, se desactiva y listo ( From the lethe project. )
[ -e /scripts/init-bottom/_apparmor ] && rm /scripts/init-bottom/_apparmor
[ -e /aufs/etc/init.d/apparmor ] && rm /aufs/etc/init.d/apparmor


#build remountrw
echo \#!/bin/sh >/aufs/bin/remountrw
echo mount -o remount,rw ${ROOT} >>/aufs/bin/remountrw
chmod 0700 /aufs/bin/remountrw

#build remountro
echo \#!/bin/sh >/aufs/bin/remountro
echo mount -o remount,ro ${ROOT} >>/aufs/bin/remountro
chmod 0700 /aufs/bin/remountro

# This should drop to a shell. (rewrite)
if [ "0$aufsdebug" -eq 1 ]; then
    echo
    echo "   root-aufs debug:    mount --move /aufs ${rootmnt} "
    echo 
    echo '   root-aufs debug:   init will stop here.   '
    echo  
    exit 0
fi

mount --move /aufs ${rootmnt}

exit 0

Dopo aver modificato le autorizzazioni per questo file:

chmod 0755 /etc/initramfs-tools/scripts/init-bottom/rootaufs

Passaggio 4. Modifica di GRUB2.

cat /etc/grub.d/10_linux|sed  s/'linux_entry "${OS}" "${version}" false'/'linux_entry "RO: ${OS}" "${version}" false'/ |sed  s/'"${GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX} ${GRUB_CMDLINE_EXTRA} ${GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT}"'/'"${GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX} ${GRUB_CMDLINE_EXTRA} ${GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT} aufs=tmpfs"'/ >/etc/grub.d/06_custom

sed -i.orig -e \
"/{GRUB_DISABLE_RECOVERY}\" != \"xtrue\" ]; then/s/^.*$/    \
if [ 0 ]; then/" \
/etc/grub.d/06_custom


sed -i.orig -e \
"/in_submenu=:/s/^.*$/    \
/" \
/etc/grub.d/06_custom

sed -i.orig -e \
"/\"Previous Linux versions/s/^.*$/    \
echo ''/" \
/etc/grub.d/06_custom

rm /etc/grub.d/06_custom.orig

chmod 755 /etc/grub.d/06_custom

update-grub
update-initramfs -u
    
risposta data BBK 07.06.2012 - 19:39
1

Voglio fare la stessa domanda e fare esattamente la stessa cosa. Questa risposta aiuta?

Come ottimizzo il sistema operativo per gli SSD?

anche questi link sembrano molto utili anche se non posso garantire l'accuratezza delle informazioni

link

link

Suppongo che una volta che hai fatto quelle cose, dovrai monitorare per vedere quali applicazioni specifiche stai scrivendo nell'unità flash di avvio. C'è un modo semplice per vedere cosa sta scrivendo su un determinato disco?

    
risposta data Amir 20.02.2012 - 14:07

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